Hepatitis C Research: What’s a Phase and How Can We Get through it Faster?

Hepatitis C:  Current Research Drugs

Picture your liver at the center of the Milky Way. Now, the swirling stars are treatments, some closer than others.  Drug studies are in orbit like this.  Work with me here.

Your Liver = Center of your universe.

Illustration of the Milky Way by Dianna Marquee

Illustration of the Milky Way by Dianna Marquee

Filed = Closest stars, drugs waiting on FDA approval.  The red tape wheels grind on.

Phase III = Next out, drugs being tested large-scale for safety and efficacy.  Will the virus die before you do?

Phase II = Further away from your liver, drugs shown not to kill  people when tested on a small group of sick patients. Cohort is the word.  This was me during round two of treatment.  Kind of risky here.

Phase I =  Compounds (drugs) that don’t kill healthy people crazy enough to volunteer (broke students and new parolees)

Preclinical =A blur of solar dust = test tube, computer chemical structuring, animal studies. Yep, animal testing.

When I was first diagnosed in 1991 with Hepatitis C, there was only one binary star, Interferon and Ribavirin.  Finally in 2011  came Telaprevir  and Boceprevir. That’s a long time between hits, 20 years.  Now the Hep C universe is almost getting crowded, but not yet.  The issue is safety and timelines.  The barbaric days of Interferon could be phased out (pun intended).

Phases of  Current Drug Research:  Thanks go to Dr Paul Kwo for this slide

Paul Y. Kwo, MD, is Associate Professor of Medicine and Medical Director of Liver Transplantation in the Gastroenterology/Hepatology Division of Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis

Paul Y. Kwo, MD, is Associate Professor of Medicine and Medical Director of Liver Transplantation in the Gastroenterology/Hepatology Division of Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis

So, this slide represents current studies, phases  and the mechanism of action (MOA).  Remember that we want at least two drugs with different MOAs in our bodies to avoid virus mutation and resistance.  The good news is that there are multiple drug candidates in each category.  For further information on any study, go to www.clinicaltrials.gov and enter the drug/compound name.  This site will also tell you if the study is enrolling patients and if there is a location close to you.  This website rocks.  Thank you federal government.

The US research system is business-based, where competition for the patent drives the process.  I’m not completely opposed to this system.  But it does have drawbacks.

Remember when AIDS researchers were competing to isolate the culprit?  France and the US,  it was crazy.  The two groups still argue about whom was first with what.

The HBO movie And The Band Played On documents government and cultural barriers to a disease connected with a cohort that isn’t mainstream, i.e. HIV and homosexual men.  I’m glad the barriers came down a bit faster with Hep C.  Initially the cohort was alcoholics and drug addicts.  But then the target audience became baby boomers.  This was 1. More acceptable and 2. A bigger pool of patients and potential profit.

Obviously the slide above is the star of this blog.    Drug companies race to be first with a new drug(s).  So why am I speaking of other things?  Because I think the days of working in a research vacuum are limited.  American drug companies say this is bad.  They claim without financial incentive, research will dry up.

But, wouldn’t it be great if companies worked together and combined research efforts?  I know, that is a big but.  I like big buts…There are novel initiatives include partnering between governmental organizations and industry. The world’s largest such initiative is the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI), and examples of major national initiatives are Top Institute Pharma in the Netherlands and Biopeople in Denmark.  In the USA it could be the National Institutes of Health (NIH).  We used to joke that NIH meant “Not Investigated Here”  meaning that the USA insists on its own research.  Only science types would joke about such topics. No wonder we have a reputation.

Paul Y. Kwo, MD, is Associate Professor of Medicine

Paul Y. Kwo, MD, is Associate Professor of Medicine

Now picture these studies sharing data.  Think of all the time and patient suffering saved by quickly identifying drug-drug and drug-disease interactions.  Think about how the winners would rise to the top.  I don’t care about the political/social overtones.  I am just thinking about patients. This is already happening with cancer research.

I have worked on this blog for a week and still can’t get it right.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus

http://www.chronicliverdisease.org/COEE/index.cfm?id=PKwo

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drug_development

http://voices.yahoo.com/a-summary-film-band-played-on-127287.html

And Now For Something Completely Predictable: Law Suits with Hepatitis C Treatments

Hepatitis C Research:  This  trend to law suits was completely predictable, but right?  I think not.  In the words of a friend of mine “Fuck me, what do I know?”

Artwork:  Lapland Hand

I don’t know the answers, so I raise my hand to ask

Hepatitis C patients want to sue drug companies post  research treatment, claiming permanent emotional and mental damage. How do they know which came first? 

  Here is one site I found while looking into the topic, www.lloydwright.org    At the end you will note an absence of comment from me. I don’t know why I am lacking compassion. Am I a patient?  Am I a scientist?   

http://lloydwright.org/messages/content/i-was-better-hepatitis-c  I was better off with the Hepatitis C!

Name:

Mariel

Your Question for Lloyd

I was wondering how I get involved in the class action against interferon. While taking the drug, I dropped down to 79 lbs, and now have Gastroparesis and Crohns disease as a result.

The interferon paralyzed my stomach, and I am considering having a pacemaker put in because I am constantly vomitting and nausea us, and dropping dramatic weight. I am on disability because of this, and its caused me immense mental distress, as well as my daughters.

Please tell me what I need to do to get involved. I can not work and there for am unable to provide the life I wanted. I was better off with the hepatitis C! 🙂

I have just finished taking Interferon and Ribavirin for Hep C

I have just finished taking Interferon and Ribavirin for Hep C. I took it for 6 months and was cured of HEP C; however, no my liver and kidneys are suffering. Two months ago I had a perfect liver besides some fat. Now, I have Cirrhosis spots and the dr. said it has acquired 2 YEARS of damage in 30 days.
I was wondering if there was any lawsuit I could join or any other programs? I now am facing cancer most likely and have 4 children and nothing to leave behind to help them.
Thanks you. -Jim Thomas

Long Term Sides that ruined my life after hep c treatment

i WANT TO SUE FOR PAIN AND SUFFERING!!!!!

Can you help direct me?  “They never told me that I would be disabled permenantly when I treated in 2006,  My nervous system is a mess.  I have severe panic attacks, depression, eyesight is really bad, still ache all over, agoraphobia.   This has brought me down from being a productive & employed ‘to being below poverty level (cause I’m unstable i cannot hold a job for long) and I have been on the brinks of homelessness for the passed months;  I’ve been suffering since 2006.

This treatment ruined my life!

Sent: Thursday, November 10, 2011 3:55 PM To: LloydWright Subject: [Contact Lloyd] Severe disability resulting from Interferon + Ribavirin treatment in 2003. I was never warned and I’m seeking legal advice and/or recourse
_Smith sent a message using the contact form at  http://lloydwright.org/messages/contact.
post Interferon nightmare

In September 2008 I started Peg Interferon. I stopped after 6 months. Here is my story:
My name is Nick I am a now 30 year old father of an almost three year old little girl named _____. ( D.O.B.: ) and husband of a 32 year old wife named _____  (D.O.B.: ) I was 27 going on 28 years old when I found out I got the Hep. C Virus. About 6 months to a year before that I was giving plasma every 6 months until finally the next time I went in to give it I found out that recently I caught the Hep. C virus.

phase II clinical trial SOC and Boceprevir – Join the Suit

Lloyd Wright, An email friend referred your site. I am currently in a federal law suit for permanent injury sustained from my participation in a clinical trial of PegIntron / Rebetol / Boceprevir. I suffer multi-system sarcoidosis with occular, renal and pulmonary involvement caused by PegIntron and Rebetol treatment.

Lee Prokaska The Hamilton Spectator Canada (Jun 3, 2010)

It is virtually impossible to put an accurate and true dollar value on a loved one lost.

But when a mechanism is set up to try to do that, when responsibility is accepted by government, it is unacceptable for families to lose yet again by failing to receive the full compensation they deserve.

Group to sue over hepatitis C

People with hepatitis C have formed a group to sue the government and drugmakers for damages over their infection during mass vaccinations even though they have no clear evidence, such as medical charts.

  www.heplikeme.com

Hepatitis C Treatment Management: What would Mamaw Do? WWMD?

Mamaw and Papaw’s Wedding Day 1916 Livingston KY

The world of Hepatitis C treatment  is more than taking drugs as scheduled and hoping for virus death.  The bigger part is keeping  your body, mind and soul with you.

  • Diarrhea?  Water and Lomotil I guess, that was never my problem
  • Nausea?  Water, saltines and Phenergan
  • Constipation?  Water and stool softener.  Even the name is too gross.  Kinda like mud-butt
  • Mouth Sores?  Water then swish and spit Mylanta.  Happy to spit
  • Food taste like pennies? Water and floss, floss, floss, brush, brush, brush.  Still doesn’t help
  • Flu symptoms for six months?  Water then alternate Tylenol and Advil for six months.  Exercise: yeah, right
  • Rash? Benadryl oral and topical.  Maybe hydrocortisone/vaseline
  • Insomnia?  Ambien if you are lucky.  Benadryl if you are unlucky, it adds to constipation and taste of pennies.  Don’t drink water before bed
  • Depression? Water and SSRIs/SNRIs/antipsychotics/and on-and-on in couplets
  • Too tired to work?   Adderall if  the shaking won’t vibrate your loose screws
  • Can’t go on?  Cry really hard, take Advil, drink water and go on.

My Mamaw had eleven children in Eastern Kentucky  starting in 1917.  There was no doctor, drug store or money.  She lost two baby boys, one to the Spanish Flu.  When she came out of delirium, baby Bentley was already buried.

If an artery spurted, she applied coal soot.  Got a burn?  First well water (cold) then let egg white dry on burn or apply a slice of onion.  Step on a nail?  Clean and soak with turpentine.   Pneumonia?  Inhale kerosene (dosing was tough) through a moist cloth and put a mustard plaster on your chest.  It will kill you or cure you.  I never witnessed this  one.  Croup?  Make a sheet tent over the steam kettle, put in Vick’s and then hold the child under the tent.  If that treatment doesn’t work, sugar with a drop of kerosene. Give a few drops of whiskey if you got it.

a dose of pee

Here’s what applied to us grandkids. Pinworms?  Check rectum at night with a flashlight then give all the kids a stinky medicine that I think had tobacco in it.   Earache?  Warm up pee in a teaspoon a little more than body temp  and pour it in your ear. Stick in a plug of quilting. I would hide in the cedar closet  as long as I could before telling Mamaw.  I made her use my pee.  Here is the thing: it worked. Pee is sterile upon leaving the urinary tract.  Of course I knew nothing of a “clean catch”.  Collection was easier when we got an indoor bathroom.  You figure it out.  When I checked the internet for possible mechanisms of action (MOA) of the pee, there was a claim that urine is an antifungal.  Of course on the internet you can probably find a claim that golf balls extract is good for an earache too.  I made that up.

Mamaw’s rocker and sock monkey

What would Mamaw do about Hepatitis C treatment management?  Probably just rock me and say “Doggone it.  It’ll get better.”    I have her rocker in my house.  It sure is smaller than I remember.  Anyway,  it doesn’t really work without her.

Hepatitis C: Is that a Real Poncho or is that a Sears Poncho?

Mothers of invention, Theatre de Clichy, Paris...

Mothers of invention, Theatre de Clichy, Paris, 1970-1972 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

“Look here brother,
Who you jivin’ with that Cosmik Debris?
Now is that a  real poncho or is that a Sears poncho?  Hmmm, no foolin’?”

Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention

Do you have a liver doctor (hepatologist) or a gastroenterologist?  Many people start out with a liver doc then over to a local gastro for long-term treatment management.  Kinda like selling your mortgage to a broker that does home mortgaging on the side but commercial financing is his bag.  I know, lame example.

Now a gastroenterologist is trained on the liver but probably hasn’t thought much about it since his fellowship at school.  Why?  Because his specialty is the GI tract (esophagus to anus).  In fact many gastroenterologists spend so much time with endoscopy or colonoscopy, they are refered to as “Scope Monkeys”.   The liver is not part of the GI tube.  No foolin’

Follow the GI tract from esophagus to anus. Then look at the liver.

Members of the two GI national associations, the American Society of Gastroenterology and Endoscopy (ASGE) plus the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG), do not attend meetings with the American  Association of the Study of Liver Disease (AASLD) and visa versa, unless presenting new research data.  But they don’t attend each other’s lectures. I know. For decades I attended the joint meetings of ASGE and ACG. It is difficult for a gastroenterologist to stay current on evolving treatments for Hepatitis C.  And these days the treatment (r)evolution is on.

Two weeks ago the AASLD and the EASL (European Association of the Study of the Liver) met in Prague to discuss Hepatitis C and:

  • Global scale intervention and control of HCV – OK
  • Prospects for a preventive HCV vaccine – OK
  • Review of new drug treatments in development such as Nonnucleoside inhibitors of HCV RNA polymerase, NS5A inhibitors, and Cyclophylin inhibitors – Important to you
  • Effectiveness of triple combinations in cirrhotics Important to a lot of you

Why do I mention this?  Here is an example of why.  Treatment of Hepatitis C is complicated and lasts a long time. The ribavirin induced anemia is treated by dose reductions based on your weight.  If your red blood cells (RBCs) drop below 10 mg/dl, Ribavirin is reduced by 20%.  If the RBC number does not increase in a few weeks, dosing must decrease another 20%.  But the dose cannot drop below 600 mg.  Now adding the protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir,who knows what happens to RBCs in you?  Does the gastroenterologist know that?  Doubtful.  Does he know about the new drugs that work at different sites on the virus?  No.

Your insurance co-pay is probably the same regardless of which specialist  you visit.  Why not go with the real poncho?  BTW I couldn’t find a real poncho, only a Sears type poncho.  No foolin’

References

http://www.songmeanings.net/songs/view/78854/#mjbJdWKO6aRwIzk0.99

http://www2.kenes.com/PRAGUE2012/SCIENTIFIC/Pages/ScientificProgramme.aspx

http://www.natap.org/2012/APASL/APASL_08.htm

http://www.hcvadvocate.org/hepatitis/factsheets_pdf/SEM_anemia.pdf

Where Is Reset? Life After Hepatitis C Treatment

 After four  years and two rounds of Hepatitis C treatment, how do I reset my life?

In 2009 I enrolled in treatment round #1 for Hepatitis C.  I was a subject in a drug trial.  As it turns out, I received standard of care: Interferon and Ribavirin.  This didn’t wipe out the virus, but did wipe out my career.  Between the emotional, psychological and physical melt down, my performance at work  never recovered.  In fact my performance began to slip a couple of years before that.  Depression coupled with anxiety along with tiredness from hep C, career and  school  left me mildly catatonic.  Oxymoron?

After round one, from which my career never recovered, I retired early.  I was that rare bird, a person with a retirement package, and I wanted to keep it.  This was in 2010-11 when pharmaceutical companies were reducing employee numbers by 30-60 %.  If sales aren’t up, expenses must come down.  Employees are expensive, especially when you think quarter to quarter. Human Resources (Man Power in my early days) would never say it, but a disproportionate number of older/higher paid employee positions went away.  A vague yet popular term was “you are not on board”  meaning you are not 110% aligned with new management thinking. Your resistance to any part of process is slowing us down.  Younger business/science professionals with a great deal of ambition and no scientific historical perspective are cheaper and quick to get “on board“.

I agree, I was not on board.  The new direction was not science. The new direction was “scientific marketing”.  WTF is that?  BTW, I used to love my job, absolutely love it.  I had the good fortune to work with  AZT, the first HIV drug and with Ritonavir the first antiretroviral for HIV.  I saw people begin to live with HIV. Ritonavir is now being studied for hepatitis C. I worked with the first oral anticoagulant that didn’t require blood monitoring ( this drug didn’t make it to launch after millions of dollars in research) and the first proton pump inhibitor for GERD.  I put teams of field scientists together in both Hemostasis and Infection.  I developed their individual and group skills.  I was good at it.  I wasn’t as good at managing up the ladder once science got squeezed by sales.  So why can’t I just get on board elsewhere?  Because I have to live with myself.  Whew, too many I’s in that paragraph.  I am trying to learn to relax and live with the debt bomb that will gobble up my little anti wolf money.

English: AZT (zidovudine), the first medicatio...

English: AZT (zidovudine), the first medication shown to be effective against HIV. From the National Institutes of Health website (http://www.history.nih.gov/NIHInOwnWords/docs/page_05c.html). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

When I was nine, Dad would drive 70 miles to Indianapolis  at 3 AM and pick up fresh produce, then back to  Al Monger’s fruit market.  I  remembered that name because Dad called my dog a mangy mongrel.  I pictured Al Monger as a hound dog  (Mom lost my dog later while drunk.  I cried about that dog for years).  Dad’s pay in part was produce.  He and I would drive through “rich” neighborhoods in an old pick-up truck and peddle watermelon from the back.  We cut plugs from a melon for house wives.  When one turned up her nose, he would say “That woman doesn’t know what trouble is”  And I thought yeah, be poor like us, then turn up your nose at a watermelon.  At day’s end we took the rest home.  It was July and Mom was pregnant with my brother.  She ate watermelon all night long.  We lived in an apartment upstairs with pink  lace plastic curtains and no screens. I knew we hit a low.  She always looked down on plastic curtains and she even had them tied in a knot.

On really bad broke hang-over days, Dad would get a pint of aluminum paint and a pair of cheap gloves.  He made a handle from a coat hanger and ran it through his belt.  We drove through rich neighborhoods and picked out a rusty TV antenna.  We parked on the curb, not the drive. I sat in the truck looking out the window.  He always had a smoke on him while talking to the homeowner. He told the lady of the house he could save that antenna.  After the first one, he convinced neighbor ladies.  For $5 he climbed the wobbly three-sided antennae and painted  up and down streets.  That night we would be “rich” and he would look like the Tin Man from the shiny paint.  One time he said “I sure am thirsty, you want a root beer?”  Are you kidding, heck yeah.  We got ice-cold mugs at the A&W.  I had to gulp it down.

Laughing, he said  he had places to go and people to see.  We’d stop by the store for bread, bologna, milk and Camels.  Maybe Hellman’s too.  A little jar.  Everything we  bought was in the little jar,tube, bottle, box or scoop.  I suggested to Mom once that we could save money by purchasing bigger quantities.  She straightened me out on that thinking.  Only rich people could afford to buy big tubes she said.  I figured out later that her “rich people” were the middle class.  I watched “Leave It To Beaver”  and wished I was in that smiling rich family.  The hedges were trim, mom vacuumed and dad came home on time every night sober.  It was like we lived in a place called Pooristan.

I still love saddle oxfords

If bill collectors came to the door, Mom would push me to tell them she wasn’t home while she hid in the hall.  They looked straight at me with eyes that said “You are lying little girl”.  We shared that moment.  I swore that I would never have the wolf at my door.  I determined to get a good job, maybe teaching, and get a used station wagon, maybe red.  That’s why I am on my 3rd red Volvo. Maybe.  Never did get a station wagon.  Still love watermelon.  Grew my own this year.

From about age six, I collected pop bottles for pennies.  I went to Cozad’s Grocery and anguished over what candy to purchase, favoring slow treats like a Sugar Daddy. If other kids collected bottles, I would cash them and take a cut of the money. I had the corner on the market. Other kids weren’t even allowed to leave our street. From age ten, I took in ironing, babysat brat kids while parents worked second shift, cleaned houses, anything to get money for school clothes and saddle oxfords. Of course in my house I washed dishes, cleaned house, did laundry, then hung it out.  There was nothing wrong with that, my mom worked in a factory everyday.

I still love saddle oxfords

I babysat my brother every summer from age 11 when he was two. In exchange Mom would  get me “something nice” at the end. Once it was my cousin’s used record player.  I couldn’t believe my good fortune.  I went downtown on Saturdays and spent the afternoon choosing a 45 rpm record.  It was 45 cents.  I played Motown non-stop. When I was fourteen I got a blue Princess Phone,  which was good because Dad always pulled the house phone out of the wall when Mom tried to call the police on him.  Phones didn’t plug in those days, the phone man had to come and repair it.After a lifetime of pushing myself to do better, the wind stopped blowing. Now that I spent my life getting out of Pooristan, can I enjoy retirement or will I fear the wolf at the door?  I have been thinking a lot about that.  And I’m only 4 months past treatment number two for hep c.

I did the craziest thing today, in response to a head hunter’s call, I sent in my resume  for a position as a Medical Affairs Director (managing a team of liaisons and of course managing up).  It is a small biopharm company that focuses on orphan drugs (rare diseases).  What was I thinking?  I don’t want to work that hard or long.   IF I talk with them, I’ll price myself out of the market.  A former colleague contacted me last week about some part-time project work.  After talking with him, my skin crawled from all the business bullshit slang.

How would I give back to the world if I could do anything?  I got all this education and pretty good team management skills, but low tolerance for bullshit.  That rules out about everything. I would like to help kids in difficult circumstances, but I remember the church ladies trying to help. No thanks.  My childhood stuff isn’t completely in the closed file.   I wouldn’t mind making a little money but that isn’t the “it”. Suggestions?

Hepatitis C Now Godzillaprevir and KingKongViracide: Yes but is Interferon Still in the Mix?

GodzillaPrevir

KingkongViracide

No matter how powerful add-on drugs are, if Interferon is still part of the mix, many patients will not be able to finish the treatment.  If I was in early stages of Hepatitis C with minimal liver scarring, I would wait 12-24 months for new treatments sans Interferon.  If my Hepatitis C were more advanced, I would go to www.clinicaltrials.gov and type in my disease and city. (Note disclaimer at end of blog)

Below are “press releases” from companies and are mostly targeted to investors, e.g. The market for treating hepatitis C has burgeoned  (My spellchecker doesn’t recognize this as a word) in the last year.

Always look at the source of medical information, if it is Kiss Your Assets Good-Bye or Liver Heard on the Street, run away. If it is the New England Journal of Medicine, or Gastroenterology proceed with caution and a jaundiced eye.  Oops a hepatitis pun.

Dec 1, 2011 – Novel Hep C Treatment Excludes Peginterferon Alfa By: DENISE NAPOLI, Internal Medicine News Digital Network Therapy with a novel

But then if I didn’t read the business news, I wouldn’t know about this for another couple of days:

Bristol-Myers Drops Hepatitis C Drug After Patient Death

Daniel Acker/Bloomberg

Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. has abandoned an experimental hepatitis C pill it bought for $2.5 billion earlier this year after one patient died and others were hospitalized while taking the drug in a study.

                    

Bristol-Myers will take a charge of $1.8 billion in the third quarter related to research and development of the therapy, the New York-based company said in a regulatory filing today. The drugmaker suspended testing the medicine, known as BMS-986094, on Aug. 1 after a patient developed heart failure.

Bristol-Myers said yesterday it has discontinued development of the drug, part of a class of medicines called nucleotide polymerase inhibitors, and was consulting with U.S. regulators to assess the treatment’s effects. Along with the death, eight patients suffered from heart and kidney toxicity, the company said in a statement.

“Bristol-Myers paid a fortune for a pearl that turns out to be fake,” said Erik Gordon, a University of Michigan businessprofessor who follows the health industry, in an e-mail today, referring to the company’s “string of pearls” name for its acquisition strategy. “The Inhibitex acquisition shows the dangers of paying huge premiums for late-stage drug candidates in hot areas. They still can fail.”

I love it:  The dangers of paying huge premiums…Not the dangers of participating in clinical trials. No disrespect to business people, just a different perspective.  I should know, I worked in Big Pharma for twenty-five years.  First make money for share holders, then do no harm to patients.

dictionary.reference.com/browse/inherent existing in someone or something as a permanent and inseparable element, quality, or attribute:

There is inherent risk for patients in clinical trials.  You can quote me on that.